Over 5000 scientific papers have informed the contents of this website and they cannot all be listed here but important references below are marked in the text pages. Several individuals and their research groups have contributed greatly to our understanding of CTS over the last few years and particular mention should be made of:

Prof. Luca Padua, Rome, Italy

Dr. Isam Atroshi, Hassleholm, Sweden

Dr Jeffrey N Katz, Boston USA

Dr Alan E Freeland, University of Mississippi, USA

Individual papers

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H --- K - L - M - N - O - P - R - S - T -- V - W - Y

Abe M, Ichinohe K, Nishida J. Diagnosis, treatment, and complications of thoracic outlet syndrome. J Orthop Sci 1999;4(1):66-69.

Abicalaf, C. A., N. de Barros, et al. (2007). "Ultrasound evaluation of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome before and after endoscopic release of the transverse carpal ligament." Clin Radiol 62: 890-894.

Ahn, D.-S. (2001). "Hand elevation: a new test for carpal tunnel syndrome." Ann Plast Surg 46(2): 120-124.

Akalin, E. El, O. Peker, O, Seoncak, O. Tamci, S. Gulbahar, S. Cakmur, R. Oncel, S (2002) “Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome with nerve and tendon gliding exercises” Am J Phys Med Rehabil 81(2):108-113

Al-Qattan, M. M., R. T. Manktelow, et al. (1994). "Outcome of carpal tunnel release in diabetic patients." Journal of Hand Surgery 19B(5): 626-629.

Allampallam, K., J. Chakraborty, et al. (1996). "Explant culture, immunoflourescence and electron-microscopic study of flexor retinaculum in carpal tunnel syndrome." J Occup Environ Med 38: 264-271.

Altinok, T., O. Baysal, et al. (2004). "Ultrasonographic assessment of mild and moderate idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome." Clin Radiol 59(10): 916-925.

Alves MPT, Araujo GCS. Low-level laser therapy after carpal tunnel release. Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia

Ashraf, A. R., R. Jali, et al. (2009). "The diagnostic value of ultrasonography in patients with electrophysiologicaly confirmed carpal tunnel syndrome." Electromyography & Clinical Neurophysiology 49(1): 3-8.

Ashraf A, Yazdani AH, Mirshams S. Evaluation of effectiveness of local insulin injection in type 2 diabetic patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Int J Endocrinol Metab 2008;2:95-103.

Ashworth NL, Bland JDP. "Effectiveness of second corticosteroid injections for carpal tunnel syndrome" Muscle and Nerve 2013 - Online in advance of print

Assmus, H. and F. Staub (2004). "[Postmastectomy lymphedema and carpal tunnel syndrome. Surgical considerations and advice for patients]." Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir 36(4): 237-240.

Atroshi I, Hofer M, Larsson G-U, Ornstein E, Johnsson R, Ranstam J. Open Compared With 2-Portal Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release: A 5-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial. J Hand Surgery 2009;34A:266-72.

Atroshi, I., C. Gummesson, et al. (2007). "Carpal tunnel syndrome and keyboard use at work." Arthritis and Rheumatism 56(11): 3620-3625.

Atroshi I. The SF-6D Health Utility Index in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. J Hand Surgery 2007;32B:198-202.

Atroshi I, Gummesson C, Johnsson R, Ornstein E, Ranstam J, Rosen I. "Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in a general population." JAMA 1999;282(2):153-58.

Atroshi I, Hofer M, Larsson G-U, et al. Open Compared With 2-Portal Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release: A 5-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial. J Hand Surgery 2009;34A:266-72.

Atroshi I, Lyten P-E, Ornstein E, Gummeson C. "The Six-Item CTS Symptoms Scale and Palmar Pain Scale in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome." J Hand Surgery 2011;36A:768-94.

Atroshi I, Flondell M, Hofer M, Ranstam, J. "Methylprednisolone Injections for the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial." Annals of Internal Medicine, 2013;159:309-317

Aung KK, Wu WK, Tokumi A, et al. Does a Directive to an Internet Site Enhance the Doctor-Patient Interaction? A Prospective Randomized Study for Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2015;97(13):1112-8.

Banta CA. A prospective, nonrandomised study of iontophoresis, wrist splinting, and anti-inflammatory medication in the treatment of early-mild carpal tunnel syndrome. J Occup Med 1994;36:166-68.

Barcenilla, A., L. M. March, et al. (2012). "Carpal tunnel syndrome and its relationship to occupation: a meta-analysis." Rheumatology (Oxford) 51(2): 250-261.

Beaton DE, Wright JG, Katz JN. Development of the QuickDASH: comparison of three item-reduction approaches. J Bone Joint Surg 2005;87A(5):1038-46.

Beck JD, Brothers JG, Maloney PJ, Deegan JH, Tang X, C KJ. Predicting the Outcome of Revision Carpal Tunnel Release. J Hand Surgery 2012;37A:282-287

Beekman, R., J. H. Wokke, et al. (2004). "Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow: follow-up and prognostic factors determining outcome." Neurology 63: 1675-1680

Bekkelund SI, Pierre-Jerome C, Torbergsen T, et al. Impact of occupational variables in carpal tunnel syndrome. Acta Neurol Scand 2001;103(3):193-97.


Bender DA. "Vitamin B6: Beyond Adequacy." Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011;16(1):29-39.

Berger L, Li Z-M. Balloon carpal tunnel plasty: first comparative clinical study. Pittsburgh Orthopaedic Journal 2006.

Berger M, Vermeulen M, Koelman JHTM, van Schaik IN, Roos YBWEM. "The long-term follow-up of treatment with corticosteroid injections in patiets with carpal tunnel syndrome. When are multiple injections indicated?" Journal of Hand Surgery; 2013; 38E(6); 634-639 

Bharucha NE, Bharucha AE, Bharucha EP. "Prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in the Parsi community of Bombay." Neurology 1991;41:1315-17.

Bindra, R. R., B. A. Evanoff, et al. (1977). "The use of routine wrist radiography in the evaluation of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome." Journal of Hand Surgery 22A: 115-119.

Bland, J. D. P. (2000). "A neurophysiological grading scale for carpal tunnel syndrome." Muscle and Nerve 23: 1280-1283.

Bland JDP, Rudolfer SM. "Clinical surveillance of carpal tunnel syndrome in two areas of the United Kingdom, 1991-2001." J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74:1674-79.

Bland, J. D. P. (2005). "The relationship of obesity, age, and carpal tunnel syndrome: More complex than was thought? ." Muscle and Nerve 32(4): 527-532.

Bland, J. D. P. (2007). "Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome." Muscle and Nerve 36: 167-171.

Bland, J. D. P. (2007). "Use of screening blood tests in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome." J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 78: 551.

Bland, JDP, Weller, P, Rudolfer S (2011) "Questionnaire tools for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome from the patient history" Muscle and Nerve 44: 757-762

Bland JDP, Ashworth NL. Does prior local corticosteroid injection prejudice the outcome of subsequent carpal tunnel decompression? Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume) 2015:epub ahead of print.

Blankfield, R. P., C. Sulzmann, et al. (2001). "Therapeutic touch in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome." J Am Board Fam Pract 14(5): 335-342.

Blazar PE, Floyd WET, Han CH, Rozental TD, Earp BE (2015). "Prognostic Indicators for Recurrent SYmptoms After a Single Injection for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome" J Bone Joint Surg Am 97: 1563-70

Bower, J. A., G. J. Stanisz, et al. (2006). "An MRI evaluation of carpal tunnel dimensions in healthy wrists: Implications for carpal tunnel syndrome." Clin Biomech 21(8): 816-825.

Bozentka, D. J., P. Beredjiklian, et al. (2001). "Hand Related Disorders Following Axillary Dissection for Breast Cancer." University of Pensylvania Orthopaedic Journal 14: 35-37.

Branco K, Naeser MA. Carpal tunnel syndrome: clinical outcome after low-level laser acupuncture, microamps transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and other alternative therapies--an open protocol study. J Altern Complement Med 1999;5(1):5-26.

Brooks JJ, Schiller JR, Allen SD, Akelman E. Biomechanical and anatomical consequences of carpal tunnel release. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2003;18:685-93.

Brown E, Genoway KA. Impact of diabetes on outcomes in hand surgery. J Hand Surg Am 2011;36(12):2067-72.

Buchberger W, Judmaier W, Birbamer G, Lener M, Schmidauer C. Carpal tunnel syndrome: diagnosis with high resolution sonography. Am J Roentgenol 1992;159:793-98.

Capasso, M., C. Manzoli, et al. (2009). "Management of extreme carpal tunnel syndrome: evidence from a long-term follow-up study." Muscle and Nerve.

Carroll RE, Hurst LC. The relationship of the thoracic outlet syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome. Clin Orthop 1982;164:149-53.

Carter R, Hall T, Aspy C, Mold J. The effectiveness of magnet therapy for treatment of wrist pain attributed to carpal tunnel syndrome. J Fam Pract 2002;51(1):38-40.

Castelli, W. A., F. G. Evans, et al. (1980). "Intraneural connective tissue proliferation of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel." Arch Phys Med Rehabil 61: 418-422.

Chammas, M., et al., Dupuytren's disease, carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger and diabetes mellitus. Journal of Hand Surgery, 1995. 20A: p. 109-114.

Chang, M. H., H. T. Chiang, et al. (1998). "Oral drug of choice in carpal tunnel syndrome." Neurology 51(2): 390-393.

Chung KC, Pillsbury MS, Walters MR, et al. Reliability and validity testing of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire. J Hand Surgery 1998;23A(4):575-87.

Choi, S.-J. and D.-S. Ahn (1998). "Correlation of clinical history and electrodiagnostic abnormalities with outcome after surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome." Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 102(7): 2374-2380

Cobb, T. K., J. R. Bond, et al. (1997). "Assessement of the ratio of carpal contents to carpal tunnel volume in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a preliminary report." Journal of Hand Surgery 22A: 635-639

Colbert AP, Markov MS, Carlson N, Gregory WL, Carlson H, Elmer PJ. Static magnetic field therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome:a feasibility study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:1098-104.

Confino-Cohen R, Lishner M, Savin H, Lang R, Ravid M. Response of carpal tunnel syndrome to hormone replacement therapy. Brit Med J 1991;303:1514.

Cook AC, Szabo RM, Birkholz SW, King EF. Early mobilization following carpal tunnel release. A prospective randomized study. J Hand Surgery 1995;20B(2):228-230.

Cowan, J., H. Makanji, et al. (2012). "Determinants of return to work after carpal tunnel release." J Hand Surg Am 37(1): 18-27

Dammers, J. W. H. H., M. M. Veering, et al. (1999). "Injection with methylprednisolone proximal to the carpal tunnel: randomised double blind trial." Brit Med J 319: 884-886.

Dammers HJ, Veering MM. Two injections with steroids close to the carpal tunnel are a greater help in CTS than one injection; 76.5% and 50% success. (abstract). Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System 2001;6:137.

Dammers JWHH, Roos Y, Veering MM, Vermeulen M. Injection with methylprednisolone in patients with the carpal tunnel syndrome A randomised double blind trial testing three different doses. J Neurol 2006;253:574-77.

Davis, P T. Hulbert, J R. Kassak, K M. Meyer, J J. (1998) “Comparative efficacy of conservative medical and chiropractic treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized clinical trial” J Manipulative Physiol Ther 21(5): 317-326

De Angelis, M. V., F. Peierfelice, et al. (2009). "Efficacy of a soft hand brace and a wrist splint for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized controlled study." Acta Neurol Scand 119: 68-74.

de Krom MC, Knipschild PG, Kester AD, Thijs CT, Boekkooi PF, Spaans F. "Carpal tunnel syndrome, prevalence in the general population." J Clin Epidemiol 1992;45(4):373-76.

Dekel S, Papaionnou T, Rushworth G, Coates R. Idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome caused by carpal stenosis. Brit Med J 1980;280:1297-99.

Dellon AL, Mackinnon SE. Chronic nerve compression model for the double crush hypothesis. Ann Plast Surg 1991;26:259-64.

Demirci, S., S. Kutluhan, et al. (2002). "Comparison of open carpal tunnel release and local steroid treatment outcomes in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome." Rheumatol Int 22(1): 33-37.

Demiryurek BE, Gundogdu AA. (2017) The Effect of Vitamin D Levels on Pain In Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Orthopaedics & traumatology, surgery & research : OTSR.

Descatha, A., L. Huard, et al. (2012). "Meta-Analysis on the Performance of Sonography for the Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome." Semin Arthritis Rheum.

DeStefano F, Nordstrom DL, Vierkant RA. Long term symptom outcomes of carpal tunnel syndrome and its treatment. J Hand Surgery 1997;22A(March):200-10.

Dimitrios S, Stasinopoulos L (2017) "Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in pregnancy with Polarized Polychromatic Non-coherent Light (Bioptron Light): A Preliminry, Prospective, Open Clinical Trial" Laser Therapy 26.4: 289-295

Duncan, I., P. Sullivan, et al. (1999). "Sonography in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome." Am J Roentgenol 173(3): 681-684.

Durkan, J. A. (1991). "A new diagnostic test for carpal tunnel syndrome." J Bone Joint Surg 73A: 535-538.

Durkan, J. A. (1994). "The carpal compression test: an instrumental device for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome." Orthop Rev 23: 522-525.

Ebata T, Tokunaga S, Abe Y. Postoperative Follow-Up of Extreme Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: How Long Does It Take to Recover Thumb Opposition? The Journal of Hand Surgery 2014;39(9):e30.

Ebata T, Tokunaga S, Takahashi Y, et al. Postoperative Follow-up of Severe Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Does Thumb Opposition Recover? The Journal of Hand Surgery 2012;37(8):2-3.

Ebenbichler GR, Resch KL, Nicolakis P, Wiesinger GF, Uhl F, Ghanem A-H, et al. Ultrasound treatment for treating the carpal tunnel syndrome: randomised "sham" controlled trial. Brit Med J 1998;316(7133):731-35.

Eberlin KR, Vargas CR, Chuang DJ, et al. Patient education for carpal tunnel syndrome: analysis of readability. Hand (N Y) 2015;10(3):374-80.

Edgell SE, McCabe SJ, Breidenbach WC, LaJoie AS, Abell TD. Predicting the outcome of carpal tunnel release. J Hand Surgery 2003;28A:255-61.

Eftekharsadat B, Shakouri SK, Shimia M, Rahbar M, Ghojazadeh M, Rashidi MR, et al. Effect of E. Laciniata (L) ointment on mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Phytotherapy Research 2010;Epub ahead of print.

El Miedany YM, Aty SA, Ashour S. Ultrasonography versus nerve conduction study in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: substantive or complementary tests? Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004;43(7):887-95.

Ellis, J M. Kishi, T, Azuma, J. Folkers, K (1976) “Vitamin B6 deficiency in patients with a clinical syndrome including the carpal tunnel defect: biochemical and clinical response to therapy with pyridoxine” Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 13:743-757

Ettema, A. M., P. C. Amadio, et al. (2004). "A histological and biochemical study of the subsynovial connective tissue in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome." J Bone Joint Surg 86A: 1458-1466.

Evers S, Bryan AJ, Sanders TL, Gunderson T, Gelfman R,Amadio PC (2017) "Corticosteroid injections for carpal tunnel syndrome: Long-term follow-up in a population-based cohort" Plast Reconstr Surg; 140(2): 338-347

Faithfull, D. K., D. H. Moir, et al. (1986). "The micropathology of the typical carpal tunnel syndrome." Journal of Hand Surgery 11B: 131-132.

Ferry S, Pritchard T, Keenan J, Croft P, Silman AJ. "Estimating the prevalence of delayed median nerve conduction in the general population." Brit J Rheumatol 1998;37:630-35.

Finsen V, Andersen K, Russwurm H. No advantage from splinting the wrist after open carpal tunnel release. A randomized study of 82 wrists. Acta Orthop Scand 1999;70(3):288-292

Flondell, M. Hofer, M. Bjork, J. Atroshi, I (2010) Local steroid innjection for moderately severe idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome: Protocol of a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (NCT 00806871), BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 11; 76

Folkers, K. Ellis, J. Watanabe, T. Saji, S. Masahiro, K (1976) “Biochemical evidence for a deficiency of vitamin B6 in the carpal tunnel syndrome based on a crossover clinical trial” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75(7):3410-3412

Fowler, J. R., J. P. Gaughan, et al. (2011). "The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome: a meta-analysis." Clin Orthop Relat Res 469(4): 1089-1094.

Franzblau, A. Rock, C L. Werner, R A. Albers, J W. Kelly, M P. Johnston, E C. (1996) “The relationship of vitamin B6 status to median nerve function and carpal tunnel syndrome among active industrial workers” J Occup Environ Med 38:485-491

Freeland, A. E., M. A. Tucci, et al. (2002). "Biochemical evaluation of serum and flexor tenosynovium in carpal tunnel syndrome." Microsurgery 22(8): 378-385.

Frueh FS, Palma AF, Raptis DA, et al. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Analysis of online patient information with the EQIP tool. Chir Main 2015;34(3):113-21.

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Futami T, Kobayashi A, Wakabayshi N, Yonemoto K, Nakamura K. Natural history of carpal tunnel syndrome. J Jpn Soc Surg Hand 1992;9:128-130.

Futami T, Kobayashi A, Ukita T, Endoh T, Fujita T. Carpal tunnel syndrome; it's natural history. Hand Surg 1997;2:129-130.

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Garfinkel, M S. Singhal, A. Katz, W A. David, A A. Reshtar, R (1998) “Yoga based intervention for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomised trial” JAMA 280:1601-1603

Garland, F. C., C. F. Garland, et al. (1996). "Carpal tunnel syndrome and occupation in U.S Navy enlisted personnel." Arch Environ Health 51: 395-407.

Garti, A., et al., Increased median nerve latency at the carpal tunnel of patients with "trigger finger". Acta Orthop Scand, 2001. 72(3): p. 279-281

Gelberman RH, Aronson D, Weismann MH. Carpal tunnel syndrome: results of a prospective trial of steroid injection and splinting. J Bone Joint Surg 1980;62A:1181-1184.

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Gerritsen, A. A. M., J. B. C. Korthals-de-Bos, et al. (2003). "Splinting for carpal tunnel syndrome: prognostic indicators of success." J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 74: 1342-1344.

Ginanneschi F, Milani P, Filippou G, Mondelli M, Frediani B, Melcangi R, et al. Evidences for Antinociceptive Effect of 17-Alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN. 2012;47:59-66.

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Goldfarb, C. A., R. H. Gelberman, et al. (2007). "Extra-articular steroid injection: early patient response and the incidence of flare reaction." J Hand Surg Am 32(10): 1513-1520.

Gordon T, Amirjani N, Edwards DC, et al. Brief post-surgical electrical stimulation accelerates axon regeneration and muscle reinnervation without affecting the functional measures in carpal tunnel syndrome patients. Exp Neurol 2010;223(1):192-202.

Goshtasby, P.H., D.R. Wheeler, and O.J. May, Risk factors for trigger finger occurrence after carpal tunnel release. Hand Surgery, 2010. 15(81): p. 81-87

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Graham RG, Hudson DA, Solomons M, Singer M. A prospective study to asses the outcome of steroid injections and wrist splinting for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Plast Reconstr Surg 2004;113:550-556.

Grandizio LC, Beck JD, Rutter MR, Graham j, Klena JC (2014) "The Incidence of Trigger Digit After Carpal Tunnel Release in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients" Journal of Hand Surgery (American Volume) 39(2): 280-285

Gunnoo N, Ebelin M, Arrault M, et al. Impact of carpal tunnel syndrome surgery on women with breast cancer-related lymphedema. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2015;152(3):683-6.

Guo D, Tang Y, Ji Y, et al. A non-scalpel technique for minimally invasive surgery: percutaneously looped thread transection of the transverse carpal ligament. Hand 2014.

Gursoy AE, Bilgen HR, Duruyen H, Altintas O, Kolukisa M, Asil T. (2016) The evaluation of vitamin D levels in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Neurol Sci.

Hains, G., M. Descameaux, et al. (2010). "A randomized controlled (intervention) trial of ischemic compression therapy for chronic carpal tunnel syndrome." Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association 54(3): 155-163.

Habib GS, Badarny S, Rawashdeh H. A novel approach of local corticosteroid injection for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Clin Rheumatol 2006;25(3):338-340.

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Hameso A, Bland JDP (2017) "Prevalence of decompression surgery in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome 8 years after initial treatment with a local corticosteroid injection" J Hand Surg Eur Vol; 42(3): 275-280

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Hankins CL, Brown MG, Lopez RA, et al. A 12-year experience using the Brown two-portal endoscopic procedure of transverse carpal ligament release in 14,722 patients: defining a new paradigm in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Plast Reconstr Surg 2007;120(7):1911-21. doi: 10.1097/01.prs.0000287287.85044.87 [published Online First: 2007/12/20]

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Hayashi, M., et al., Carpal tunnel syndrome and development of trigger digit. J Clin Neurosci, 2005. 12(1): p. 39-41.

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Hirata H, Nagakura T, Tsujii M, Morita A, Fujisawa K, Uchida A. The relationship of VEGF and PGE2 expression to extracellular matrix remodelling of the tenosynovium in the carpal tunnel syndrome. J Pathol 2004;204(5):605-12.

Hobson-Webb, L. D., J. M. Massey, et al. (2008). "The ultrasonographic wrist-to-forearm median nerve area ratio in carpal tunnel syndrome." Clinical Neurophysiology 119: 1353-1357.

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Horng Y-S, Hsieh S-F, Tu Y-K, Lin M-C, Horng Y-S, Wang J-D. The Comparative Effectiveness of Tendon and Nerve Gliding Exercises in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Trial. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2011;90(6):435-42.

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Hussain, S. S., C. Taylor, et al. (2011). "Ulnar artery ischaemia following corticosteroid injection for carpal tunnel syndrome." New Zealand Medical Journal 124(1335): 80-83

Irvine, J., S. L. Chong, et al. (2004). "Double-blind randomized controlled trial of low-level laser therapy in carpal tunnel syndrome." Muscle and Nerve 30(2): 182-187

Irwin LR, Beckett R, Suman RK. Steroid injection for carpal tunnel syndrome. J Hand Surgery 1996;21B:355-357.

Isaac SM, Okoro T, Danial I, et al. Does wrist immobilization following open carpal tunnel release improve functional outcome? A literature review. Current reviews in musculoskeletal medicine 2010;3(1-4):11-7.

Ismatullah, "Local steroid injection or carpal tunnel release for carpal tunnel syndrome - Which is more effective?" J Postgrad Med Inst 27(2): 194-199

Iwatsuki K, Nishikawa K, Chaki M, et al. Comparative responsiveness of the Hand 20 and the DASH-JSSH questionnaires to clinical changes after carpal tunnel release. J Hand Surg Eur Vol 2014;39(2):145-51.

Jarvik JG, Comstock BA, Kliot M, Turner JA, Chan L, Heagerty PJ, et al. Surgery versus non-surgical therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomised parallel-group trial. The Lancet 2009;374:1074-81.

Jazayeri SM, Azizi S, Moghtaderi AR. Autologous blood injection in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 2009;49(8):369-72.

Jeffrey SLA, Belcher HJCR. Use of Arnica to relieve pain after carpal-tunnel release surgery. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2002;8(2):66–8.

Jenkins PJ, Duckworth AD, Watts AC, et al. The outcome of carpal tunnel decompression in patients with diabetes mellitus. J Bone Joint Surg 2012;94B(6):811-14.

Jenkins PJ, Duckworth AD, Watts AC, McEachan JE. "Corticosteroid injection for carpal tunnel syndrome: a 5-year survivorship analysis" Hand; 2012; 7; 151-156

Jerosch-Herold C, Shepstone L, Miller L. Sensory relearning after surgical treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome: a pilot clinical trial. Muscle Nerve 2012;46:885-90.

Jerosch-Herold C, Houghton J, Miller L, Shepstone L. "Does sensory relearning improve tactile function after carpal tunnel decompression? A pragmatic, assessor-blinded, randomized clinical trial" J.Hand Surg Eur Vole 2016, epub ahead of print

Julka A, Vranceanu AM, Shah AS, Peters F, Ring D. Predictors of pain during and the day after corticosteroid injection for idiopathic trigger finger. J Hand Surg Am 2012;37(2):237-242.

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Revision date - 9th July 2023

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